President Powers


    Vetoes can be of following types:-

    • • Absolute Veto: withholding of assent .

    • • Pocket veto: delay in giving assent

    • • Suspensive veto: which can be over – ridden by legislature with a ordinary majority .

    • • Qualified veto : which can be over – ridden by Legislature with a higher majority

    • • President of India enjoys Absolute Suspensive and Pocket vetoes

    • • Constitution doesn’t clearly mentions about nature of Veto – power of President


    • • Money Bill can be introduced in the parliament only on his prior recommendations .

    • • He causes to be laid before the parliament the annual financial statement.

    • • No demand for grant can be made except on his recommendations .

    • • Money can only be released from the Contingency Fund after the sanction of president .

    • • He constitutes a Finance Commission after every 5 years .


    • • Under Article 72, president has power to grant:

    • • Pardons: completely absolve offender from all punishments .

    • • Reprieves : stay on the executions of the sentence for a temporary period.

    • • Respites: awarding lesser punishment on special grounds

    • • Remission : reductions of sentence without changing its character

    • • Commutation: substitution of one from of punishment for another from which is of a lighter character .

    • • To suspend , remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence .

    • • By Court Martial

    • • An offence against any law relating to any matter to which executive power of the union extends

    • • In all cases in which the sentence is one of death

    • • He is the only authority for pardoning a sentence of death. Governor has the power to suspend, remit or commute a death sentence in certain circumstances under Indian Penal Code and Criminal Procedure Code.


    • • The president of ?India is elected by indirect election, Indirect election was designed to help electing a statesman who was not directly involved in party politics.

    • • Article 54 provides that president shall be elected by electoral collage to make the president, representative of the State & union equally. Collage consisting of :
      • (a) The elected members of both Houses of parliament

      • (b) The elected members of the legislative Assemblies of the States (even if the State Assembly is in suspended animation)

    • • Who all take part in President ‘s election .

      Lok Sabha + Rajya Sabha + Legislative Assemblies Of States + Legislative assemblies of Uts of Delhi & puducherry .

    • • Nominated members of above houses at the Centre and the Sates do not have voting rights in the election of the president Who all do not take part in president ‘s election.

      Lok sabha (2 from Anglo Indiaa Communtry) + Rajya Sabha (12 nominated by president )+ legislative Assemblies (1 from Anglo (Indian Community ) + Legislative Councils completely .

    • • Word “State” includes National Capital Territory of Delhi and UT of Pondicherry (Puducherry) . This has been added by 70th Amendment Act, 1992.

    • • Article 55 (3) says that the election of the president shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation means of single transferable vote. Voting is done by a secret ballot.

    • Constitutions prescribes two principles for the problem under Article 55 (1) : as far as practicable there shall be uniformity in the scale of representation among the states inter se as well as parity between the Sates as a whole and the union in the election of president .

      Value of vote an MLA =Total Population Of State / Elected Membes On the State Legislative Assembly *1000

      Value of vote an MP = Total no. of votes Assignes to all elected MLA's / Total no.s Of elected MLA's

      Quota of Votes a candidate needs to win election = No. Of Votes Polles +1 /No. Of members to be returned+1

    • • To secure uniformity among States and party between the union and States following formula is adopted:

    • • The population figures used for such calculations are that of 1971 census. 42nd Amendment (1976) froze the last preceding census’ to 1971, till the 1st census after 2000 .


    • •Charge must come in the from of a proposal contained in a resolution (singed by not less than 1/4th of the total members of the house ) and moved after giving at least 14 days’ advance notice to the president .

    • • Such a resolution must be passed by a majority of not less than 2\3rd of the total membership of the initiating house .

    • • Charge is then investigated by the other House (President has right to appear and to be represented at such investigation ).

    • • If the other House, after investigations passes a resolution by 2/3rd majority of the total membership declaring that the charge is proved , the president is removed from his office from the data on which such resolution is so passed .